The genus Julodis Eschscholtz

In Julodis it's possible to identified two main groups. The first one is typical of the southern part of Africa (in green). The other group (in red) lives in Northern Africa (around Sahara, reaching The Red Sea and Aldabra Is.), in the Mediterranean Subregion, Middle Orient, in some steppic lands of Central Asia, reaching Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India. Recently discovered also in China. In the distribution of this last group we can locate two main centres of diversification: one in NW Africa (Maghreb: Maroc, Algeria and Tunisia) an another in Middle Orient. Very few species live in Southern Europe and in some Mediterranean isles . This scarce presence in Europe is probably caused by last glacial periods. Several species of Palearctic Julodis show a very high variability, with many geografical forms. West Mediterranean Julodis are particularly represented by two extremely variable species: Julodis onopordi and Julodis aequinoctialis, with other related species. In the East Mediterranean region and Middle Orient, there is a big number of species. Many of them were considered subspecies or simply varieties of Julodis onopordi, but they are considered good species, now (Julodis andreae, etc.). Other big complexes are those of Julodis euphratica and Julodis variolaris. We have an incredible number of synonims and different classifications, especially for two extremely variable species, and perhaps there is none, at this moment, able to write a complete list of Palearctic species. There are surely other unknown or undescribed species and subspecies. I'll try to write a list of species, but someone (especially some Obenberger's species) surely need to be revised.

Distribution ot the genus Julodis Eschscholtz
Purple = Palearctic group. Green = Ethiopic group

A first list of Palearctic Julodis
(without subspecies and varieties):

Julodis aeneipes Saunders
Julodis aequinoctialis (Olivier)
Julodis ampliata Marseul
Julodis andreae (Olivier)
Julodis aristidis Lucas
Julodis armeniaca Marseul
Julodis atkinsoni Kerremans
Julodis audouini Castelnau & Gory
Julodis balucha Obenberger
Julodis bleusei Abeille
Julodis caillaudi (Latreille)
Julodis candida Holynsky
Julodis chrysesthes Chevrolat
Julodis cloueti Buquet
Julodis consobrina Kerremans
Julodis cylindrica Thery
Julodis cyrus Obenberger
Julodis distincta Gory
Julodis ehrenbergi Castelnau
Julodis escalerae Abeille
Julodis ethema Gory
Julodis euphratica Castelanu & Gory
Julodis faldermanni Mannerheim
Julodis fimbriata Klug
Julodis hohneli Fairmaire
Julodis intricata Redtenbacher
Julodis iranica Obenberger
Julodis iris Castelnau & Gory
Julodis karelini Mannerheim
Julodis klapaleki Obenberger
Julodis laevicostata Gory
Julodis longicollis Abeille
Julodis lucasi Saunders
Julodis manipularis (Fabricius)
Julodis marmottani Escalera
Julodis matthiesseni Reitter
Julodis monstrosa Abeille
Julodis nemethi Thery
Julodis obscura Bily
Julodis onopordi (Fabricius)
Julodis ormarensis Obenberger
Julodis palmyrensis Obenberger
Julodis pietzschmanni Kerremans
Julodis pubescens (Olivier)
Julodis rothi Sturm
Julodis speculifera Castelnau
Julodis syriaca (Olivier)
Julodis variolaris (Pallas)
Julodis withilli Gray
Julodis zoufali Obenberger

If you could send me other specimens or photos of other species, you will help me very much.